What is plant genetic resources in crop improvement?

Plant genetic resources are the biological basis of food security. Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture consist of diversity of seeds and planting materials of traditional varieties and modern cultivars, crop wild relatives, and other wild plant species.

What are the importance of plant genetic resources?

It provides wealth and food diversity for humans and animals, fiber, fuel, medicinal plants, affects water regulation in nature, prevents soil erosion and degradation, allows the development of sport, recreation and ecotourism (CONSTANZA et al., 1997).

Who is the father of plant genetic resources?

geneticist Nikolai Vavilov
Russian geneticist Nikolai Vavilov, considered by some as the father of plant genetic resources, realized the value of genetic variability for breeding and collected thousands of seeds during his extensive travels to establish one of the first gene banks.

What do you know about plant genetic resources?

Plant genetic resources are any plant materials, such as seeds, fruits, cuttings, pollen, and other organs and tissues from which plants can be grown. The stewards are the breeders, researchers, farmers, genebank staff, and many others who keep them safe and use them.

Why is plant genetic resources important in crop improvement?

The centre of origin/diversity of various vegetable crops reveals that a number of vegetable crops of economic importance and their wild relatives originated in this region. These genetic resources possess genes for wide adaptability, high yield potential including resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

What are genetic resources?

Genetic resources for food and agriculture are the raw materials upon which the world relies to improve the productivity and quality of domesticated plant and animal populations, as well as to maintain healthy populations of wild species, including those used in forestry and fisheries.

How many types of genetic resources are there?

THE NATURE OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES The cultivated plant materials that are conserved are of five general kinds: landrace, folk, or primitive varieties; obsolete varieties; commercial varieties or cultivars; plant breeders’ lines; and genetic stocks.

What is plant DNA called?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.

What are the resources of plants?

For plants key resources are light, nutrients, water, and place to grow. For animals key resources are food, water, and territory.

What is the importance of genetics in agriculture?

Genetic diversity is needed to safeguard potentially vital traits that could be used to combat an unexpected future pest or adapt to the needs of the world’s food supply. Plant breeders utilize genetic diversity to create improved crop varieties with traits such as yield, pest resistance and environment stress.

What is conservation of plant genetic resources?

The fundamental objective of genetic resources conservation is the maintenance of broad based genetic diversity within each of the species (i.e., intra-specific genetic diversity) with a known or potential value in order to ensure availability for exploitation by present and future generations.

What is the example of genetic resources?

They include, for example, microorganisms, plant varieties, animal breeds, genetic sequences, nucleotide and amino acid sequence information, traits, molecular events, plasmids, and vectors.