When the pig has a rough skin or parakeratosis What nutrient does he lack?

Parakeratosis is a zinc-responsive dermatosis usually observed in 2- to 4-month-old swine. Pigs not allowed access to soil or not supplemented with zinc are more likely to have parakeratosis. The disease is caused by a relative deficiency of zinc.

What are symptoms of parakeratosis in swine?

Crusty lesions on the abdomen, distal portion of the legs, and medial thighs are characteristic of parakeratosis. The skin may be dry and rough, with dirt and debris accumulating in the lesions. In severe cases, reduced growth rate and appetite are seen, occasionally accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea.

What causes parakeratosis in pigs?

Predisposing factors include rapid growth, deficiency of essential fatty acids, or malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disease. Parakeratosis is uncommon in commercial swine unless errors have been made in diet formulation; however, it may occur in backyard pigs.

What is animal parakeratosis?

Ruminal parakeratosis is a disease of cattle and sheep characterized by hardening and enlargement of the papillae of the rumen. It is most common in animals fed a high-concentrate ration during the finishing period.

What is parakeratosis of the skin?

Parakeratosis is defined as the presence of nucleated keratinocytes in the stratum corneum, and is thought to be due to accelerated keratinocytic turnover. 1. Parakeratosis may occur in both benign skin diseases (such as various dermatitides) and malignant neoplasms (such as squamous cell carcinoma).

How can you prevent parakeratosis?

Sometimes a change in ration appears to be beneficial. These observations sug- gest that parakeratosis is not due to a simple zinc deficiency but is related to other nutrients. In any event, adding zinc to the ration is at present the most promising prevention and treatment known.

How is parakeratosis treated?

Isotretinoin [45, 46] and tretinoin have been reported as effective for granular parakeratosis. Calcipotriene has been used to treat granular parakeratosis. Additional vitamin D-3 analogs, such as maxacalcitol, have been used effectively for treatment.

What does parakeratosis look like?

Granular parakeratosis can present as an intertrigo (rash in body folds) or as a non-intertriginous rash. It presents as a red or brown patchy scaly rash, most often in the armpits or in other skin folds. It is sometimes itchy. In severe cases, the rash spreads widely over the trunk.

What causes parakeratosis in humans?

Granular parakeratosis is thought to be provoked by friction, occlusion, and sweating. A defect in filaggrin production may predispose to granular parakeratosis. This protein is normally present in the upper epidermis, but there are various genetic variants that lead to a weakness of the skin’s barrier function.

Can parakeratosis be cured?

Patients should also be instructed that granular parakeratosis is inconsistently responsive to various treatments, and there is no cure for granular parakeratosis.

What is the treatment of parakeratosis?