What type of receptor is vitamin D?

The vitamin D receptor (VDR also known as the calcitriol receptor) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3) binds to VDR, which then forms a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor.

How does the vitamin D receptor work?

The vitamin D hormone binds to receptors in its target cells, controlling the synthesis of many different proteins involved in calcium transport and utilization. The receptor is composed of two domains: a domain that binds to the hormone and a domain that binds to DNA.

Where are vitamin D receptors located in the brain?

In this article, we will discuss the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol which mediates its effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is principally located in the nucleus of target cells [12]. VDR is a nuclear steroid receptor through which it performs its functions in the brain.

What are the 3 functions of vitamin D?

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the body. The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Vitamin D also plays a role in bone growth, bone healing, and immune system function.

How many vitamin D receptors are there?

Maestro et al., (2016) reported that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is found in most human tissues and has more than 1000 target genes [41].

What is a vitamin D receptor agonist?

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists are well known for their capacity to control calcium and bone metabolism and to regulate growth and differentiation of many cell types. More recently, it has become clear that VDR agonists possess immunoregulatory properties and, in particular, pronounced protolerogenic activities.

What are vitamin D receptor activators?

VDR activators (calcitriol and paricalcitol) are available for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency, which can result from inadequate cutaneous production and/or low dietary intake. Vitamin-D deficient patients present a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than the general population.

How does vitamin D affect neurotransmitters?

In addition to its well-known role in calcium absorption, vitamin D activates genes that regulate the immune system and release neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine, serotonin) that affect brain function and development.

How does vitamin D affect dopamine?

Vitamin D Vitamin D has many roles in your body, including the regulation of certain neurotransmitters like dopamine ( 37 ). One study showed decreased dopamine levels in vitamin-D-deprived mice and improved levels when supplementing with vitamin D3 ( 38 ).

What is vitamin D examples?

Salmon. Salmon is a popular fatty fish and a great source of vitamin D.

  • Herring and sardines. Herring is a fish eaten around the world.
  • Cod liver oil. Cod liver oil is a popular supplement.
  • Canned tuna.
  • Egg yolks.
  • Mushrooms.
  • Vitamin D fortified foods.
  • What is vitamin D receptor activator?