## What is the clinkering temperature?

Composition and preparation Portland cement clinker is made by heating a homogeneous mixture of raw materials in a rotary kiln at high temperature. The products of the chemical reaction aggregate together at their sintering temperature, about 1,450 °C (2,640 °F).

## How do you calculate clinker factor?

Raw meal to clinker factor = 100 – ash absorbtion 100 – LOI Ash absorbtion = % of ash in fuel x specific fuel consumption Specific fuel consumption = kg coal kg clinker = Specific heat consumption NCV of coal Note: LOI assumed to be negligible in clinker.

Clinker is the backbone of cement production. It is essentially a mix of limestone and minerals that have been heated in a kiln and have been transformed by this heat. When limestone is converted to clinker, CO2 is released (also known as process emissions).

The process of clinkerization signifies conversion of raw meal into clinker minerals mainly consisting of C4AF(Aluminoferite), C3A(Aluminite), C2S(Belite) and C3S (Alite) phases along with small percentage of free lime CaO, MgO, Alkalies, Sulphates etc.

### Do we have clinker in Kenya?

Kenya has a clinker shortage of 3.3Mta, 40 per cent of demand, with 59 per cent of the deficit being imported duty-free from Egypt, according to the National Independent Clinker Verification Committee. However, the total clinker production capacity in the country is around 8Mta.

### What is the percentage of clinker in PC?

As per specification of BDS EN 197-1:2003, CEM-1, 52.5 N Crown Portland Cement is a cement prepared by mixing clinker 95-100% and gypsum 0-5%. This cement is also called Portland Cement (PC).

What is cement to clinker ratio?

The world average clinker/cement ratio is about 0.81, with the balance comprising gypsum and additives such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, and natural pozzolana.

What is NCR in cement industry?

How is NCR (naked cement realisation) calculated in the cement industry?