What is genetic hypercalciuria?

The most common metabolic abnormality in patients with kidney stones is hypercalciuria, which is a complex metabolic trait that is dependent on three major organs: the amount of dietary calcium absorbed, any net calcium released from bone resorption in excess of formation, and the extent to which filtered calcium is …

How is hypercalciuria caused?

Causes / Risk Factors for Hypercalciuria Family history of kidney stones. Not drinking enough fluids. Diet high in sodium and protein. Taking medicines such as furosemide (Lasix), corticosteroids, excessive vitamin D and methylxanthines, such as theophylline.

What is the treatment for hypercalciuria?

Bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva) have become useful in the treatment of hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia. These agents are particularly helpful in cases of hyperparathyroidism in which parathyroid surgery cannot be performed or medical therapy is desired.

Why does hyperparathyroidism cause hypercalciuria?

The etiology is a defect in calcium reabsorption from the renal tubule that causes an obligatory, excessive urinary calcium loss. This results in hypocalcemia, which causes an elevation in the serum PTH. This secondary hyperparathyroidism raises vitamin-D levels and increases intestinal calcium absorption.

What causes Hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis?

In most cases, the cause of hypocitraturia is not known. However, it has been associated with the presence of acid-balance disturbances, low levels of potassium in the blood, high-protein diets, and chronic diarrhea.

What is Hyperuricosuria?

Hyperuricosuria can be defined as the daily urinary uric acid excretion of more than 800 mg in men and more than 750 mg in women. It can be the result of numerous congenital and acquired causes, leading to increased uric acid generation or diminished elimination of uric acid.

What causes kidneys to leak calcium?

Renal leak hypercalciuria occurs in about 5-10% of calcium-stone formers and is characterized by fasting hypercalciuria with secondary hyperparathyroidism but without hypercalcemia. The etiology is a defect in calcium reabsorption from the renal tubule that causes an obligatory, excessive urinary calcium loss.

Which drug causes hypercalciuria?

Loop diuretics, such as bumetanide and furosemide, inhibit both sodium and calcium resorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. In addition to exerting a diuretic effect, this mechanism of action produces a hypercalciuric state.

What is the difference between hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria?

For the purpose of this analysis hypercalcemia was defined in usual clinical terms, that is a serum calcium ≥ 10.3mg/dl (2.75mmol/l). Similarly hypercalciuria was defined as a 24 hour urine calcium value > 300mg (7.5mmol/L) and severe hypercalciuria as > 400mg (10mmol/L).

Does hypercalciuria cause osteoporosis?

Idiopathic hypercalciuria increases the risk of urinary stones and osteoporosis.

Can an unobstructed kidney stone cause pain?

Kidney stones don’t cause pain, until they block the flow of urine. Typically, patients come to the ER complaining of pain radiating from their flank region around the abdomen and toward the groin, depending on the location of the stone. Patients also frequently have nausea and vomiting associated with the pain.