What is clathrate bonding?

Clathrate hydrates (CHs) are inclusion compounds in which “tetrahedrally” bonded H2O forms a crystalline host lattice composed of a periodic array of cages. The structure is stabilized by guest particles which occupy the cages and interact with cage walls via van der Waals interactions.

What do clathrate hydrates contain?

Clathrate hydrates are ice-like materials that belong to the category of inclusion compounds. They consist of a solid network of hydrogen bonded water molecules that form cavities encaging various “guest” molecules such as methane, carbon dioxide or small hydrocarbon chains.

What is clathrate compound give example?

clathrate A compound in which molecules of one substance, commonly a noble gas, are completely enclosed within the crystal structure of another substance. Typical examples are Kr and Xe encapsulated in zeolite structures, or Ar, Kr, and Xe trapped in water ice.

Where are clathrates formed?

Clathrate hydrate forms when a hydrophobic molecule is entrapped inside a water cage or cavity. Although biomolecular structures also have hydrophobic patches, clathrate-like water is found in only a limited number of biomolecules.

How are clathrate compounds formed?

THE clathrate type of molecular compound is formed by the imprisonment of one sort of molecule in some kind of cage structure of the other component. In the compound the molecular component M is trapped during formation of the cage C from molecules or other complexes which exist in the same solution with it.

How are clathrates prepared?

Clathrates formed when hydroquinone (PQ) solutions crystallize under pressure of some noble gases (G). They have the formula (PQ)3G. Crystals can be handled at room temperature but the noble gas is released upon dissolving the crystals.

What are clathrate and channel compounds?

➢The definition of inclusion compounds is very broad, extending to channels formed between molecules in a crystal lattice in which guest molecules can fit. ➢ If the spaces in the host lattice are enclosed on all sides so that the guest species is ‘trapped’ as in a cage, the compound is known as a clathrate.

Which gas can form clathrate?

clathrate is an ice-like compound formed when water freezes in presence of sufficient methane and other gases.

What are clathrates used for?

Other applications of clathrate hydrates include the separation of gases such as CO2 from flue gases and desalination. Clathrate hydrates can be used in flue gases to separate CO2 by encouraging the formation of CO2 clathrate hydrate in a flue gas mixture.

How many types of clathrates are there?

Accordingly, clathrates are broadly classified as given below. High temperature and high pressure clathrates, e.g., fullerenes. Low temperature and high pressure clathrates, e.g., gas hy- drates. Normal temperature and pressure clathrates, e.g., clathrin.

Is used to make clathrate compound?

A number of gases—notably the noble gases and simple hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane, propane, and acetylene, as well as chlorine and carbon dioxide—form crystalline hydrates called clathrate compounds at relatively low temperatures and pressures.

What are clathrate compounds of noble gases?

Clathrates (also known as cage compounds) are compounds of noble gases in which they are trapped within cavities of crystal lattices of certain organic and inorganic substances.