What are the three genera belong to the family of Moraxellaceae?

Family Moraxellaceae There are three genera: Acinetobacter are nonmotile, oxidase-negative strains, Moraxella are similar but oxidase positive and the third genus is Psychrobacter.

Where is Moraxella found?

Moraxella organisms are Gram-negative cocci in the family Neisseriaceae. They were previously known as diplococcus of Morax-Axenfeld. Moraxellae are normal inhabitants of the upper respiratory tract and are also found on the skin and in the urogenital tract.

What is Moraxella species?

Moraxella organisms are small, gram-negative bacteria that grow well on blood or chocolate agar. They are catalase and oxidase positive. These small diplococci are morphologically difficult to distinguish from Neisseria. Some Moraxella species are gram-negative bacilli.

Where does Moraxella osloensis come from?

Moraxella osloensis has been isolated from environmental sources in hospitals and from the normal human respiratory tract,1 and has been reported as a rare causative pathogen of infections in humans. Although differentiation of M.

What is the cause of Moraxella?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a bacterium that causes infection by sticking to a host cell. It does this using special proteins called adhesins that are on its outer membrane. Doctors usually treat M. catarrhalis infections with antibiotics, but this is becoming increasingly challenging due to antibiotic resistance.

How is Moraxella treated?

Amoxicillin-clavulanate, second- and third-generation oral cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) are the most recommended agents. Alternatively, azithromycin or clarithromycin can be used. More than 90% of M catarrhalis strains have been shown to resist amoxicillin, and these rates vary by region.

What does Moraxella cause?

A number of common childhood illnesses, including some middle ear (otitis media) and sinus infections (sinusitis), are caused by Moraxella catarrhalis bacteria. On rare occasions, this same organism may cause a blood infection (bacteremia), an eye infection (conjunctivitis), and meningitis in newborns.

What is the characteristics of Moraxella?

Moraxella species are usually catalase and oxidase positive and do not produce acid from carbohydrates. Nitrate may or may not be reduced. Common characteristics of the Moraxella genus include a lack of colony pigmentation; Gram negative staining coccobacillus and Bacillus morphology (except M.

Is Moraxella Gram-negative?

Members of the genus Moraxella are Gram-negative, aerobic, asaccharolytic bacteria that can be pleomorphic, resistant to Gram-stain decolorization, and occur predominantly in pairs or short chains.

How is Moraxella transmitted?

Transmission is believed to be due to direct contact with contaminated secretions by droplets. The endotoxin of M catarrhalis, a lipopolysaccharide similar to those found in Neisseria species, may play a role in the disease process.

Is Moraxella serious?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a type of bacteria common in young children. It can often be harmless. Those at risk of infection complications are people with underlying health conditions or a weakened immune system and those with socioeconomic risk factors.