What are the genes associated with carbapenem resistance?

Carbapenem resistance is a major and an on-going public health problem globally. It occurs mainly among Gram-negative pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, and may be intrinsic or mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes.

What bacteria is resistant to carbapenem?

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance occurs when the germs no longer respond to the antibiotics designed to kill them. Enterobacterales bacteria are constantly finding new ways to avoid the effects of the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause.

How does carbapenem resistance occur?

Carbapenem resistance is mainly caused by two basic mechanisms including the production of carbapenemases (carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes) and B-lactamase activity coupled with structural mutations (ESBLs and AmpC cephalosporinases) [19, 20] (Figure 1).

Does the bacteria produce resistant to carbapenem antibiotics Why?

Gram-negative bacteria can develop and transfer β-lactam resistance (including carbapenem resistance) in many ways. They can generate new extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) from the existing spectrum of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases through amino acid substitution.

What is meant by carbapenem resistance?

Carbapenem resistance, mainly among Gram-negative pathogens, is an ongoing public-health problem of global dimensions. This type of antimicrobial resistance, especially when mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes, is spreading rapidly causing serious outbreaks and dramatically limiting treatment options.

What are examples of carbapenems?


  • Doribax.
  • doripenem.
  • ertapenem.
  • imipenem/cilastatin.
  • imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam.
  • Invanz.
  • meropenem.
  • meropenem/vaborbactam.

Is E coli resistant to carbapenem?

coli isolates are fully resistant to carbapenems. In the laboratory, imipenem-resistant Escherichia coli K-12 strains have been constructed by the introduction of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme from Aeromonas hydrophila, CphA, into porin-deficient mutants (7).

How did carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae become resistant?

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have become a public health threat worldwide. There are three major mechanisms by which Enterobacteriaceae become resistant to carbapenems: enzyme production, efflux pumps and porin mutations. Of these, enzyme production is the main resistance mechanism.

What causes carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae?

CRE are usually spread person to person through contact with infected or colonized people, particularly contact with wounds or stool (poop). This contact can occur via the hands of healthcare workers, or through medical equipment and devices that have not been correctly cleaned.

What is the difference between CRO and CRE?

However, there is a significant difference between CRO and CRE: the latter is specific to one family of bacteria. But both terms are used frequently, and often interchangeably by government and agency reports but neither are well-defined.

What is another name for carbapenem?

List of Carbapenems:

Drug Name Avg. Rating Reviews
Invanz (Pro) Generic name: ertapenem 5.5 2 reviews
Primaxin IM (Pro) Generic name: cilastatin / imipenem 10 1 review
Doribax (Pro) Generic name: doripenem 10 1 review
Primaxin IV (Pro) Generic name: cilastatin / imipenem 9.0 No reviews

What causes carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae?